Letham Shank Farm - Crops, Machinery and Livestock

 

Letham Shank Farming Glossary

Common terms used in Agriculture and the Countryside.

Here are the results for the letter - C

Canola
In agriculture, canola is the name given to certain varieties rapeseed (particularly in US & Canada)plants or the oil produced from those varieties.

Capping
Soils cap when a fine seedbed is sown and firmed but heavy rainfall follows. This causes the soil surface to form a hard layer when it dries out which in turn can prevent the emergence of shoots from the sown seeds.

Caryopsis
The term used to describe the simple fruit produced by grasses, including cereals.

Catch-crop
This is a quick growing crop, opportunistically grown for livestock feed etc. If for example winter barley was combined in July a fodder crop could be quickly sown and eaten during the winter allowing a spring crop to be drilled normally.

Cattle Passport
A document recording identification, movement and other details for a specific bovine animal.

Celcius
A temperature scale becoming universal where melting ice = 0 and boiling water =100 The alternative scale is Fahrenheit. A rough conversion is: C * 1.8 + 32 = F

Chain
A measure of length equal to 22 yards. or 20.1 metres.

Cheviot
A hardy breed named after the range of hills it originates from in northern England. It tends to be short legged but produces good quality meat.

Chickweed
An omnipresent weed growing almost anywhere in the UK. It is low growing and has tiny white flowers which produce seed almost all year round.

Chlorophyll
A molecule found in plants that produces carbohydrates from CO2, water and sunlight by photosynthesis. It absorbs mainly red and blue light, giving plants their green colour. The 'waste' product is oxygen. (O2)

Clamp
A large area with walls possibly of timber but normally concrete which is used to store Silage. The clamp is filled with chopped grass from a forage harvester and compacted by tractor or handler and then sealed by means of a polythene membrane. Most moderns clamps are roofed.

Clean grazing
Pasture free from animal parasites, normally by resting it for one or more years.

Cleavers
(Galium aparine)A scrambling weed with 'sticky' hairy seeds and leaves. A problem weed which can smother crops and is generally seen in hedgerows.

Cloudbase
The height of the 'bottom' of clouds from the ground. It can be roughly calculated from air temperature and dew point.

Clover
(Trifolium) A leguminous, nitrogen fixing plant with red or white flowers. Used extensively as a fodder crop or mixed with grass. It is regularly used as a cover crop.

CO2
Carbon dioxide. A gas linked to global warming emitted primarily by fossil fuels. Growing crops absorb CO2 and produce oxygen.

Colorado Beetle
A serious pest of potatoes, but very rarely seen in the fields of the UK. Most now arrive on imported foodstuffs.

Colostrum
The antibody-rich first milk produced by the mother immediately before and for a limited time after giving birth.

Combine
Combine (Harvester) Normally a self propelled machine which cuts, thrashes and separates grain from straw which it leaves either swathed or chopped.

Compaction
When soil is compressed naturally or otherwise to the extent that water cannot drain away or plant roots penetrate. Subsoiling is carried out to alleviate this.

Compound
Compound (Fertiliser) is one which contains more than one nutrient (nitrogen potash phosphorus sulphur)as opposed to a 'straight'(Picture).

Coppice
Cutting a broad leaved tree to a stump to encourage many fresh straight shoots which can be used for walking sticks, hurdles etc.

Couch Grass
(Elymus repens) Very common in crops and grassland, couch reproduces by rhizomes as well as seed making it a constant problem.

Coulter
That part of a seed drill which actually works in the soil to place and cover the seed. They may be of the disc type or shoe type.

Couped
(Cowped?) A dialect word for a sheep which has rolled on it's back and because of fleece or terrain cannot get back on it's feet.

Court
Court or courtings are yards, partally or totally covered to overwinter livestock in.

Cover Crop
A short term crop to aid in management of soil fertility, erosion, organic matter,weeds and pests. Normally grown instead of fallow or between normal crops.

Crab Apple
(Malus Sylvestris) Common in hedges and occasionally as a small tree it has small apple shaped sour fruits.

Cranefly
Commonly known as 'daddy longlegs'.The larva of which is the leatherjacket can cause damage to grassland as it lives below ground for up to nine months.

Crawler
Commonly used to describe a track laying tractor. Traditionally tracks were steel but modern tractors have rubber tracks.

Creep
A creep is a shelter for young lambs that ewes are not able to enter. Feeding is supplied inside to encourage the lambs to take up solid food.(Picture)

Croft
A small (<50 acres) subsistence farm found in the highlands of Scotland. Most crofters have secondary jobs as a living cannot generally be made today.

Crush
A (cattle) crush is a frame used to hold a large animal stationary whilst administering medications etc.

Cultivation
Normally shallow tillage operations to improve, drainage, water conservation, aeration, or to control weeds.

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2000 - 2019