Letham Shank Farm - Crops, Machinery and Livestock

 

   Letham Shank Weather Station


Local Time
     Latitude  55° 46' 36" N   Longitude 02° 02' 11" W
     Elevation  54 m  
  
     Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland TD15 1UX

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      On this Page: 
      Beaufort Wind Scales for Land.      Beaufort Wind Scales for Sea. 
       Beaufort Weather Notation.       Windchill Equivalent Temperature.
 
Beaufort Wind Scale (Land)
 
Beaufort Number Wind Effect on land Speed (Knots) Speed (mph)

0

Calm

Smoke Rises Vertically

Less than 1

Less than 1

1

Light Air

Direction shown by smoke but not wind vanes

1-3

1-3

2

Light breeze

Wind felt on face; leaves rustle; wind vanes move.

4-6

4-7

3

Gentle breeze

Leaves & twigs in motion; wind extends light flag

7-10

8-12

4

Moderate breeze

Raises dust & loose paper; moves small branches.

11-16

13-18

5

Fresh breeze

Small trees in leaf begin to sway.

17-21

19-24

6

Strong breeze

Large branches in motion; whistling in telegraph wires; difficulty with umbrellas.

22-27

25-31

7

Moderate gale

Whole trees in motion; difficult to walk against wind.

28-33

32-38

8

Fresh gale

Twigs break off trees; progress impeded.

34-40

39-46

9

Strong gale

Slight structural damage occurs; chimney pots & slates blown off.

41-47

47-54

10

Whole gale

Trees uprooted and considerable structural damage.

48-56

55-63

11

Storm

Widespread damage; seldom experienced in UK.

57-65

64-75

12

Hurricane

Winds of this force rarely encountered outside tropical revolving storms.

Over 65

Over 75

 
Beaufort Wind Scale (Sea)
 
Beaufort Number Wind Effect on Sea Speed (Knots) Wave Height (m)

0

Calm

Sea like a mirror.

Less than 1

0

1

Light Air

Ripples formed but without foam crests.

1-3

0.1

2

Light breeze

Small wavelets; crests have glassy appearance but do not break.

4-6

0.2

3

Gentle breeze

Large wavelets. Crests begin to break. Perhaps scattered white horses.

7-10

0.6

4

Moderate breeze

Small waves becoming longer; fairly frequent white horses.

11-16

1.0

5

Fresh breeze

Moderate waves, taking more pronounced long form; many white horses.

17-21

2.0

6

Strong breeze

Large waves begin to form; the foam crests are more extensive everywhere. (Probably some spray.)

22-27

3.0

7

Moderate gale

Sea heaps up and white foam from breaking waves begins to be blown in streaks along the direction of wind.

28-33

4.0

8

Fresh gale

Moderately high waves of greater length; The foam is blown into well marked streaks along direction of wind.

34-40

5.5

9

Strong gale

High waves. Crests begin to topple, tumble and roll over. Spray may affect visibility.

41-47

7.0

10

Whole gale

Very high waves with long overhanging crests. The sea takes on a white appearance. Visibility affected.

48-56

9.0

11

Storm

Exceptionally high waves. (Small & medium sized ships may be lost to view behind waves.) Everywhere the edges of wave crests are blown into froth. Visibility affected.

57-65

11.5

12

Hurricane

The air is filled with foam & spray. Sea completely white with driving spray; visibility seriously affected.

Over 65

>14

 
Beaufort Weather Notation
 
Weather Beaufort Notation Weather Beaufort Notation
Blue Sky (0-2/8 cloud) b Snow s
Overcast (Whole sky covered with Unbroken cloud) o Fog f
Partly Clouded (3/8 to 5/8 cloud) bc Thunder t
Squally weather q Gale g
Cloudy (6/8 to 8/8 cloud) c Thunderstorm with rain or snow tlr or tls
Rain r Hail h
Drizzle d Precipitation in sight jp
Sleet rs Ugly threatening sky u
Wet Air (no Precipitation) e Dust Haze z
Unusual Visibility v Hoar Frost x
Line squall kq Lightning l
Dew w Dry air y
Storm of drifting Snow ks Mist m
 
Windchill Equivalent Temperature.
 
Beaufort
Force
Wind Speed
at 10 metre
height
Air Temperature °C
  Knots ms-1 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15
1 2 0.8 -41 -36 -31 -26 -21 -15 -10 -5 0 +5 +10 +15
2 5 2.4 -43 -38 -32 -27 -22 -17 -12 -7 -1 +4 +9 +14
3 8.5 4.3 -47 -42 -37 -31 -26 -20 -15 -9 -4 +2 +7 +13
4 13.5 6.7 -52 -47 -41 -35 -30 -24 -18 -12 -7 -1 +5 +11
5 19 9.3 -57 -51 -45 -39 -33 -27 -21 -15 -9 -3 +3 +9
6 24.5 12.3 -61 -55 -49 -43 -37 -31 -24 -18 -11 -5 +2 +8
7 30.5 15.5 -65 -59 -52 -46 -40 -33 -27 -20 -13 -6 +0 +7
8 37 18.9 -68 -62 -55 -49 -42 -36 -29 -22 -15 -8 -1 +6
9 44 22.6 -72 -64 -59 -52 -45 -38 -31 -24 -17 -10 -2 +5
 
"Windchill" is a term normally used to express the combined effect of low air temperature and of wind on a standing or walking human. It can be measured by the rate of heat loss per unit area, the "windchill factor" or more commonly by the "windchill equivalent temperature" (WET). No allowance is made for precipitation or sea spray. Windchill does not apply to inanimate objects, even heat producing engines. In "full" sunshine, a correction of about +7°C at low wind speeds and +3°C at gale force should be made.
The concept is useful in countries which experience cold winters to distinguish the difference in human comfort and risk of exposure between light and strong winds.
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